The blue top represents the isotype control rat IgM

The blue top represents the isotype control rat IgM. to zinc transporter (ZnT-8) and the monoclonal antibody IC2. While DTBZ and antibodies to ZnT-8 showed binding activities to more than beta-cells, the anti-IC2 monoclonal antibody showed binding properties exclusively to insulin-producing beta-cells. This effect was demonstrated in many previous investigations, and has been further substantiated more recently. Thus, at present, IC2 seems to be the only useful marker for noninvasive functional imaging of native beta-cells. Experiments with a radioisotope-chelated IC2 structure on pancreas showed that the tracer specifically bound to the beta-cell surface and could be detected by nuclear imaging. In the near future, these promising findings may offer a new way to monitor the beta-cell mass in vivo under disease and therapy conditions so that we can learn more about diabetes pathogenesis and options for disease prevention. islet labeling prior to transplantation [10, 11]. During a 8-48 hour incubation period in the presence of non-toxic iron oxide crystals coated by carboxytextrane (particle size 60-100 nm) iron accumulates in all major islet cell types including macrophages (Figure ?(Figure1).1). In T2-weighted images, iron shows a Prasugrel (Maleic acid) strong superparamagnetic effect that enables the visualization of individual islets or their clusters following transplantation as distinct hypointense spots located in the liver parenchyma (Figure ?(Figure22). Open in a separate window Figure 1 Rat islets labeled with ironoxide nanoparticles (ferucarbotran)A: Immunodetection of C-peptide on a frozen section (red). B: Histochemical detection of iron (Fe3+). Prussian blue reaction (blue) on the same section. C: Iron localization in Prasugrel (Maleic acid) beta-cells Prasugrel (Maleic acid) in a combined view. D-F: Transmission electron micrographs show iron particles (arrows) inside beta-cells (D), alpha-cell (E) and an islet macrophage (F). Open in a separate window Figure 2 T2-weighted MR image of a rat liver with 2000 transplanted human pancreatic islets labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Resovist (r). In experiment, at least, this way of islet imaging correlates with their survival, or rejection, over BPTP3 a several months period [12]. Functional survival immediately following transplantation can be documented by PET or PET/CT imaging after previous labeling with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [13, 14]. While the spatial resolution of PET Prasugrel (Maleic acid) is rather low, the combination with CT significantly improves the anatomic correlation. In the near future, clinical MRI of the islet graft should be possible with the use of a medically approved contrast agent applied for islet labeling labeling. Obviously, only a new generation of specifically targeted contrast agents engineered by different principles will allow monitoring of the fate of native beta-cells [27, 28] due to its high specificity to these cells [29]. After intravenous administration, the IC2 antibody labeled with a radioisotope chelator specifically binds to beta-cell surface Prasugrel (Maleic acid) structures and can be detected by nuclear imaging. As the most specific beta-cell antibody, and the only currently available structure that binds exclusively to living insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas, it was recommended for future research by a board of beta-cell and imaging experts [28]. Despite the promising features of anti-IC2 monoclonal antibody, experimental and clinical studies verifying that it could be applied in human pancreas diagnostics are lacking so far. Original findings using cellular ELISA showed an extraordinary high beta-cell specificity in studies on both primary rat cell (hepatocytes, fibroblast, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, macrophages and islet cells) and various other cell lines (liver BRL, lymphoid CL58, and the pancreatic beta-cell lines RIN-5F, RIN-5AH, INS-1E,.