Further investigations are required to clarify the specific pathway induced by astaxanthin, already in use for neurodegenerative diseases prevention

Further investigations are required to clarify the specific pathway induced by astaxanthin, already in use for neurodegenerative diseases prevention. The polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) isolated from three diatoms, and (Table 2), are able to induce specific PCD, extrinsic apoptosis and necroptosis in lung and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines [44,91]. immunogenic signals, such as DAMPs, which are able to stimulate the immune system. The acute exposure of DAMPs can primary antitumour immunity by inducing activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as dendritic cells (DC), leading to the downstream response by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells (NK). As ICD represents an important target to direct and develop new pharmacological interventions, the identification of bioactive natural products, which are endowed with low side effects, higher tolerability and preferentially inducing immunogenic programmed cell death, represents a Stiripentol priority in biomedical research. The ability of ICD to drive the immune response depends on two major factors, neither of which is usually intrinsic to cell death: Antigenicity and adjuvanticity. Indeed, the use of natural ICD-triggering molecules, alone or in combination with different (immuno)therapies, can result in higher efficacy and tolerability. Here, we focused on natural (marine) compounds, particularly on marine microalgae derived molecules such as exopolysaccharides, sulphated polysaccharides, glycopeptides, glycolipids, phospholipids, that are endowed with ICD-inducing properties and sulfavants. Here, we discuss novel and repurposed small-molecule ICD triggers, as well as their ability to target important molecular pathways including the IL-6, TNF- and interferons (IFNs), leading to immune stimulation, which could be used alone or in combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies in malignancy prevention and therapies. displayed an antiproliferative effect on melanoma cells, with an IC50 of 63.5?g mL?1 on B16-F10 and of 70.1 g mL?1 on A375 cells [76]. The anticancer effect of gallotannin is usually promoted through apoptosis markers of caspases 3 and 9, mobilization of cytochrome C Stiripentol and externalization of annexin V. In addition, a gallotannin-rich portion from induces the expression of ICD markers (ATP and HMGB1) and activation of the autophagic process [76]. This study reported that a gallotannin-rich portion (101.6 g mL?1 for 48 h) induced 70% of cell death in lysate of melanoma cells (B16-F10), being highly immunogenic as Stiripentol mice vaccinated with cell lysate were able to drastically reduce the tumour volume of injected B16-F10 cells [76]. Linalool and p-coumaric acid are other interesting molecules, providing an efficient strategy to contrast tumour growth. These compounds were able to inhibit the growth of many human cancer cells, such as A549 adenocarcinoma cells, T-47D breast cancer cells, SW620 colon adenocarcinoma cells and Hep G2 liver malignancy cells, in a dose-dependent way [77]. In addition, these two polyphenols induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lymphocytes, such as IFN-, IL-13, IL-2, IL-21, IL-21R, IL-4, IL-6sR and TNF- [77]. Shikonin, another example Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10A5 of a phenolic compound isolated from your Chinese herbal medicine [78], is an efficient adjuvant molecule for the activation of ICD in malignancy cells. Melanoma murine malignancy cells (B16-F10) treated with shikonin activated both apoptotic death mechanisms, receptor- and mitochondria-mediated pathways, through caspase 8, Bax, cytochrome c and caspase 9 [78]. In addition, the cell lysate enhanced the maturation of DCs and acted as differentiation stimuli for Th1 and Th17 cells [78,79], which enhances the presentations of the ICD antigens. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), an alkaloid extracted from plants of the genus that gives the spicy flavours to hot peppers, has repellent activities against mammals and fungi [87]. Capsaicin is able to selectively induce cell death in many types of human malignancy cells, such as breast malignancy cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, urothelial bladder malignancy 5637 cells, BxPC-3 and AsPC-1 pancreatic malignancy cells, SNU-1 and TMC-1 gastric malignancy cells, and SW480 and HCT-116 colorectal malignancy cells, without lowering viability in normal cells [80]. Capsaicin activates both vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1)-dependent and -impartial pathways, promoting cell death through Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress [82]. Capsaicin-mediated cell death supports the expression of hallmarks of ICD. Capsaicin induces apoptotic cell death in PEL cells (main effusion lymphoma), favouring translocation of CARL and HSP90 to the cell surface [88]. CARL, HSP70 and HSP90 and ATP release were exposed at the cell surface during the early apoptotic stage also of human bladder malignancy cells (SD48 and T24) treated with 50C250 M of capsaicin, ICD markers [81]. Digoxin and digitoxin are saponins (glycosylated sterols) isolated from your plants and or sp. when provided as a food product are endowed with immunomodulating activity (Table 2) [101]. Sulfavants are a family of synthetic sulfoglycolipids.