Briese J

Briese J., Sudahl SLC7A7 S., Schulte H. FOS, FOSB, and FOSL1 proteins were robustly increased in trophoblast cells subject to wound-based migration assays as well as Matrigel-based invasion assays. knockdown resulted in cessation of proliferation and an induction of migration and invasion concomitant with robust expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP3, and MMP10. Conversely, knockdown abrogated trophoblast migration and invasion and inhibited the production of MMP1, MMP3, and MMP10. In human placenta, FOS was expressed in proximal anchoring villi in conjunction with phospho-ERK. FOSL1 was temporally expressed only in the distal-most extravillous trophoblast cells, which represent a migratory cell population. Therefore, FOS GSK-650394 and FOSL1 exert opposing effects on trophoblast invasion. studies have determined that, in many situations, JUN-FOS heterodimers are more stable and have stronger DNA binding activities than JUN-JUN homodimers (10,C12). Thus, expression of FOS proteins contributes to the robust activity of AP-1-regulated genes. In the context of cellular invasion, each FOS family member is implicated in the control of genes affecting cell locomotion, particularly in cancer cells (13,C21). However, little is known about the role of FOS family members in the placenta. In the mouse, which exhibits invasive hemochorial placentation akin to humans, FOSL1-deficient mice exhibit placental and extraembryonic abnormalities leading to early embryonic death (22). Similarly, knockdown of in rat placentae and rat-derived trophoblast stem cells causes defects in trophoblast invasion and (23). FOS is expressed in mouse placenta, but mice deficient in FOS are viable and fertile despite having reduced placental and fetal weights (15). FOSL2 knock-out mice are also viable but exhibit placental structural and signaling defects that indirectly impact differentiation of embryonic tissues from which GSK-650394 they ultimately succumb (24). No defect in placentation has been reported in FOSB knock-out mice. In human placentae, FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2 have been detected spatiotemporally at high levels in extravillous trophoblast cells (25,C27). Moreover, AP-1 transcriptional activity is required for the promotion of MMP production by human trophoblast cells (28, 29). However, the biological significance of individual FOS components in human trophoblast cells is not known. To address this, we studied the expression of FOS family members in trophoblast cells and in placental sections and utilized knockdown approaches to determine the role of individual FOS family members in trophoblast migration and invasion. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Cells BeWo, Jar, and JEG3 trophoblast cells initially derived from metastatic lesions of choriocarcinoma (30,C32) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. The immortalized human first trimester extravillous trophoblast lines HTR-8/SVneo (HTR8) (33), Swan 71 (34), and SGHPL4 (35) were kind gifts from Professors Charles Graham (Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada), Gil Mor (Yale University, New Haven, CT), and Guy Whitley (St. George’s, University of London, London, UK), respectively. The TCL1 term trophoblast cell line was kindly provided by Professor Mark Sullivan (Imperial College London, London, UK) (36). BeWo and SGHPL4 cells were maintained in DMEM/F-12 medium (Sigma-Aldrich), whereas JEG3, Jar, HTR8, Swan 71, and TCL1 had been taken care of in RPMI 1640 moderate (Invitrogen). GSK-650394 All press had been supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 products/ml penicillin, and 100 m streptomycin (all from Sigma-Aldrich). Cells had been passaged by light trypsinization ahead of achieving confluence and had been taken care of at 37 C within an atmosphere comprising 5% CO2 for only 20 successive passages. 293FT human being embryonic kidney cells had been purchased through the American Type Tradition Collection and taken care of in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 products/ml penicillin, and 100 m streptomycin. RT-PCR Comparative degrees of RNA had been evaluated by RT-PCR. Total mobile RNA was extracted using TRI Reagent (Sigma-Aldrich) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. 500 ng of total RNA was utilized for reverse transcription using a High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription kit GSK-650394 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). cDNAs were diluted 1:10 and subjected to conventional PCR or quantitative RT-PCR analysis using primers detailed in Tables 1 and ?and2,2, GSK-650394 respectively. Conventional PCR was.